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REFRACTORIES
479
incorrect.    Temperatures should be given only when the softening point has been determined direct by means of the optical pyrometer.
The composition and estimated softening temperatures of the American. cones usually employed in the testing of refractories are given in Table 1. It is necessary to emphasize the fact that the softening temperatures are by no means fixed but vary according to the rate of heating, being lower under conditions of slower firing.
TABLE 1
Number	Formula as given by Seger, Hecht and Cramer	Softening temperature as given, by makers		From, corrected data by Kanolt, degrees Centigrade
		C	oF	
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 23 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42	0. 3 KaO, 0. 7 CaO, 0. 2 FeO3, 0. 3 AhOa 4 SiOa ..........	1,150 1,170 1,190 1,210 1,230 1,250 1,270 1,290 1,310 1,330 1,350 1,370 1,390 1,410 1,430 1,450 1,470 1,490 1,510 1 , 530 1,590 1 , 650 1 , 670 1 , 690 1,710 1,730 1,750 1,770 1,790 1,810 1 , 830 1 , 850 1 , SSO 1 , 9(50 t , 050	2,102 2,138 2,174 2,210 2,246 2,282 2,318 2,354 2,390 2,426 2,462 2,498 2,534 2,570 2,606 2,642 2,678 2,714 2,750 2,786 2,894 3,002 3 , 038 3,074 3,110 3,146 3,182 3,218 3,254 3,290 3,326 3,362 3,416 3 , 470 3,542	1,600 1,620 1,635 1 , 650 1 , 070 1 , 085 1,705 1 , 720 1 , 740 1 , 755 1 , 835 1 , 850 1 , SKO 1,1)15 1 ,970 2,025
	0.3 KaO, 0.7 CaO, 0.1 Fe2O3, 0.4 AlaOs 4 SiO2 ...........			
	0. 3 KaO, 0. 7 CaO, 0. 05 FeaOa, 0. 45 AhOs 4. SiOa ......... 0 3 KaO, 0 7 CaO, 0. 5   AlaOs 4 SiOa			
	0 3 KaO, 0 7 CaO, 0. 5 AlaOs, 5 SiOa . .			
	0.3 KaO, 0.7 CaO, 0.6 AlaOa, 6 SiOa .............			
	0 3 KaO, 0 7 CaO   0. 7 AlaOs 7 SiOz			
	0.3 KaO, 0 7 CaO, 0.8 AlaOa, 8 SiOa ...........			
	0. 3 KaO, 0. 7 CaO, 0. 9 AlaOa, 9 SiOa ..................			
	0 3 KaO, 0 7 CaO, 1.0 AlaOa  10 SiOa    .    .			
	0. 3 KaO, 0 7 CaO, 1. 2 AlaOs, 12 SiOz ...............			
	0 3 KaO  0 7 CaO   1 4 AlOa  14 SiOa			
	0 3 K-O, 0 7 CaO, 1 6 AlaOs, 16 SiOa ........			
	0 3 K-O, 0.7 CaO, 1.8 AlzOa, 18 SiOz ...................			
	0 3 KaO  0 7 CaO   2  1 AlzOa  21 SiOjs    .			
	0 3 KaO, 0 7 CaO, 2.4 AlaOa, 24 SiOa ........			
	0 3 KaO  0 7 CaO   2 7 AlzOs 27 SiOa			
	0 3 KaO  0 7 CaO  3 1 Al-Os, 31 SiO			
	0 3 KaO, 0 7 CaO, 3     AlaOj  35 SiOa ..............			
	0 3 KaO  0 7 CaO   3 9 AhOs  39 SiOa			
	0 3 KaO  0 7 CaO   5 4 AlsOs, 54 SiOa             .   .			
	0 3 KaO, 0 7 CaO, 7. 2 AlzOs, 72 SiOa ...........			
	0 3 KsO, 0 7 CaO, 20. 0 AhOs, 200 SiOa ................			
	AlaOs 10 SiOi			
	AlaOa 8 SiOz                   ......          .................			
	AlaOs 6 SiOa			
	Al->0j 5 SiOa			
	AlaOs 4 SiOa                                        ..........			
	Al-'Os 3 SiO2               ..................................			
	AlaOs 2 5 SiOz			
	AlaOj 2. 0 SiO- ......................................			
	AlsOs 1. 5 SiOa .......................................			
				
				
		1 , 9 SO	3, MM 3 , or>o 3 ,7122	
	AlsOa ................................................	2,010 12,050		
The use of Seger cones for the estimation of the softening point of basic refractories is not advisable and the optical pyrometer should be employed for this purpose, especially since the temperatures involved are often above the available cone series. When it is necessary to resort to the use of cones these should be placed on a plaque made from a mixture of fused alumina and kaolin and not upon that supporting the test specimens which is necessarily basic.